Features of Federal and Unitary System in Indian Constitution

Features of Federal and Unitary System in Indian Constitution


India is a constitutional republic. The Preamble of the Constitution of India is called the soul of the Constitution.

Federal system of government is in force in India but the word federation is not used anywhere in the constitution.

In the Constitution, India has been called a ‘Union of States’.

  1. According to Prof. D. D. Basu, “The Constitution of India is neither purely federal nor purely unitary; It’s a combination of both. “
  2. According to K. C. Hare- “India is a predominantly unitary state with nominal federal features. The Constitution of India is more unitary than federal.
  3. According to Payali- “India’s structure is federal but. His soul is unitary.”

Characteristics of Federalism


  1. Independent and Supreme Court.
  2. Supremacy of the Constitution.
  3. Division of powers between the center and the states.
  4. There are separate governments in the Union and the State.

Characteristics of Unitary System

  1. Constitutional amendment easily.
  2. One constitution for the Union and the State.
  3. Unitary nature in times of crisis.
  4. Sharing of powers in favour of Centre.
  5. Appointment of Governors in States.
  6. The Centre has the power to make laws on a subject in the State List.
  7. Power of governors to reserve laws passed by state legislatures for the assent of the President.
  8. The central government has the right to change the boundaries of the states.
  9. Integrated justice system.
  10. Single citizenship.




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